Aluminum Nitride (AlN) is a solid nitride of aluminium. It has a high thermal conductivity of up to 285 W/(m·K), and is an electrical insulator. Its wurtzite phase (w-AlN) has a band gap of ~6 eV at room temperature and has a potential application in optoelectronics operating at deep ultraviolet frequencies.
Composites – Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics. They consist of ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix. The matrix and fibres can consist of any ceramic material, silicon carbide, aluminum, etc.
Alumina – Aluminium oxide or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) it is most commonly referred to as alumina. It may also be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications. It occurs naturally in its crystalline polymorphic phase α-Al2O3 as the mineral corundum, varieties of which form the precious gemstones ruby and sapphire. Al2O3 is significant in its use to produce aluminium metal, as an abrasive owing to its hardness, and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point.
Boron Carbide – (B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications. With a Vickers Hardness of >30 GPa, it is one of the hardest known materials, behind cubic boron nitride and diamond.
Silicon Carbide – (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. Synthetic SiC powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive. Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates.
Hexoloy® – Silicon carbide is one of the hardest high-performance materials available. Hexoloy sintered alpha silicon carbide will outperform other commercially available ceramics or metal alloys, including superalloys. Hexoloy silicon carbide is ideal for applications such as nozzles, pump and valve trim, paper and textile equipment components, ballistic armor and more. Its unique properties can make a significant difference in a wide variety of high performance applications.
Silicon Nitride – (Si3N4) compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen. It is the most thermodynamically stable of the silicon nitrides. Hence, Si3N4 is the most commercially important of the silicon nitrides and is generally understood as what is being referred to where the term “silicon nitride” is used. It is a white, high-melting-point solid that is relatively chemically inert, being attacked by dilute HF and hot H2SO4. It is very hard (8.5 on the mohs scale). It has a high thermal stability.
Tungsten Carbide – (WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms. In its most basic form, tungsten carbide is a fine gray powder, but it can be pressed and formed into shapes through a process called sintering for use in industrial machinery, cutting tools, abrasives, armor-piercing rounds, other tools and instruments.